E-Numbers

Simply put, E- numbers are the code numbers used to identify food additives which are officially approved a safe to consume. While additives, liaison with European Union legislation is a must as most additives are acceptable in specific foods with certain quantitative limits. Additives must be assessed for safety before they can be used in food to ensure the science on additives is strictly reviewed, the law strictly enforced, and the action taken where problems are found.

Whilst some additives with a common code such as E471, can be either of animal or plant origin and this latter type needs to be investigated on a case-by-case basis per product/ manufacturer. Most of the additives are however suitable.

The E-numbers are categorized as follows:




  • E100-199
    Food colors
  • E200-299
    Preservatives
  • E300-399
    Antioxidants, phosphates, and complexing agents
  • E400-499
    Thickeners, gelling agents, phosphates, humectants, emulsifiers
  • E500-599
    Salts and related compounds
  • E600-699
    Flavour enhancers
  • E700-899
    Not used for food additives (used for feed additives)
  • E900-999
    Surface coating agents, gases, sweeteners
  • E1000-1399
    Miscellaneous additives
  • E1400-1499
    Starch derivatives


Code Name Alternative Name Function Status Source Health Info Uses Other Uses
E100 Curcurmin 1,7-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; turmeric yellow; Diferuloylmethane; C.I. 75300 Colouring Halaal Vegetable extract - orange yellow colour. Health Code: Green, has many beneficial health effects, may cause skin irritation, moderately toxic by injection Curry powder, fish fingers, margarine, confectionery, processed cheese, savoury rice
E101 Riboflavin Lactoflavin, Vitamin B2; Vitamin G Colouring Halaal Microbiological; Synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the body Baby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cereals Vitamin tablets
E101 Riboflavin Lactoflavin, Vitamin B2; Vitamin G Colouring Halaal Microbiological; Synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the body Baby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cereals Vitamin tablets
E101(a) Riboflavin-5'-phosphate Riboflavin-5-[Sodium phosphate] Colouring Halaal Soluble Riboflavin; Chemical using Riboflavin Health Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial effects in the body Baby cereals, enriched breads, peanut butter, breakfast cereals Vitamin tablets
E102 Tartrazine FD&C Yellow 5; C.I. 19140; C.I. Food Yellow 4; C.I. acid yellow 23; hydrazine yellow Colouring Halaal Synthetic Health Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, dermatitis, headache, hay fever, concentration difficulties, depression, skin rash, learning difficulties, behavioural problems, swelling of lips and tongue, hyperactivity, aggressive behaviour, insomnia, confusion, anaphylaxis, aspiri Confectionery, sweet corn, cheese crackers, soft drinks, mint sauce, mint jelly, fruit juice cordial, canned peas, marzipan, pickles, brown sauce, packet dessert topping, jams, cereal, packaged soups.
E103 Chrysoine Resorcinol Tropaeolin O; C.I. acid orange 6; C.I. food yellow 8; C.I. 14270; Yellow T; tropeolin O; tropaeolin R; gold yellow. Halaal Synthetic Colour
E104 Quinoline Yellow C.I. 47005; C.I. Acid Yellow 3; D&C Yellow No. 10; Food Yellow 13 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, skin rash, hyperactivity, anaphylaxis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenic Beverages, processed foods Cosmetic dye, lipstick, soap, toothpaste, hair products, cologne
E105 Fast Yellow AB Tropaeolin OO; C.I. acid orange 5; diphenylamine orange; orange GS; Orange N; orange IV; acid yellow D; C.I. 13080. Halaal Synthetic chemical
E106 Riboflavin-5-sodium Phosphate Riboflavin-5-Phosphate sodium salt; Vitamin B2 phosphate sodium salt. Halaal From riboflavin and chlorophosphoric acid
E107 Yellow 2G Food Yellow 5 Halaal Synthetic
E110 Sunset Yellow FCF C.I. 15985; FD&C Yellow 6; C.I. Food Yellow 3 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Health Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, abdominal pain, eczema, hyperactivity, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenic Fruit juice cordial, marzipan, packet soup, cereal, confectionery, dry drink powder, canned fish Cosmetics, hair rinses
E1103 Invertase EC 3.2.1.26; Invertin; saccharase; sucrase Processing aid Halaal Microbiological from yeast Health Code: Yellow, GM enzymes have been linked to serious health concerns and even death Confectionery with soft centres
E1105 Lysozyme EC 3.2.1.17; lysozyme hydrochloride; muramidase; N-acetyl muramidase; globulin G1; Delvozyme Preservative Halaal From hens egg white Health Code: Yellow, Chronic headaches, allergic reactions Cheese preparation Cosmetics, tablets, lozenges, eye drops
E111 Orange GGN Alpha-naphthol orange; Orange I; tropaeolin OOO no. 1; C.I. acid orange 20; FD&C orange 1; C.I. 14600 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E1200 Polydextrose Modified polydextroses Humectant, Stabiliser Halaal From Glucose & Sorbitol Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effect, NRC Low calories foods, yoghurt, custard powder, ice cream, confectionery
E1201 Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP; plasdone; polyvidone; Povidone; Povidone K25; povidone K17; povidone K30; povidone K90. Clarifying agent, Stabiliser Halaal Synthetic Chemical. Health Code: Red, Lung and kidney damage, gas, tumours, allergic contact dermatitis in sunscreen, skin sensitisation, carcinogenic Beer, wine and vinegar manufacture Hairspray and lacquers, shampoo, sunscreen
E1202 Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone PVPD; crosslinked povidone; cross povidone; insoluble PVP Clarifying agent Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, see Polyvinylpyrrolidone E1201 Used to clarify sparkling wine and vinegar Hairspray
E132 Indigo Carmine Indigotine; C.I. 73015; FD&C Blue 2; Food Blue 1 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, allergic reactions, hyperactivity, heart problems, NRC, carcinogenic, see Coal Tar Bottled soft drinks, sweets, biscuits, confectionery, ice cream, bakery products Hair rinses, dye in kidney function tests, tablets and capsules
E133 Brilliant Blue FCF C.I. 42090; FD&C Blue 1; Food Blue 2 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, hay fever, allergic reactions, NRC, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenic Gelatine, canned processed peas, soft drinks, dairy products, cereals, cereals, desserts Toothpaste, cosmetics, hair dye, deodorant
E140 Chlorophyll C.I. 75810 Colouring Halaal Plants. Check if it contains alcohol Health Code: Green, safe in food use, cancause a sensitivity to light Soups, sauces, olive oil, soybean oil Antiperspirant, deodorant, mouthwash
E1400 Dextrin Pyrodextrin; torrefaction dextrin Halaal Hydrolysis of starch
E1401 Modified Starch Acid treated starch; acid modified starch Halaal Source: acid treatment of starch
E1402 Alkaline Modified Starch Alkaline treated starch Halaal Alkaline treatment of starch
E1403 Bleached Starch N/A Halaal Starch bleached with SO2 or sulfur dioxide
E1404 Oxidised Starch N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Food starch oxidised with sodium hypochlorite Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Casserolemix, batter mix, confectionery
E122 Carmoisine Azorubine; C.I. 14720; carmoisen Colouring Halaal Synthetic; not permitted in Norway, Sweden, USA, Japan Health Code: Red++, Asthma, hyperactivity, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, animal carcinogen Confectionery, sweets, Marzipan, brown sauce, jelly crystals
E123 Amaranth C.I. 16185; FD&C Red 2; C.I. Acid Red 27; Red No. 2 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical, not the grain. FD and C Red No2, coal tar and azo dye - not permitted in Norway or USA Health Code: Red, Hyperactivity, hives, asthma, rhinitis, aspirin sensitive pple may wish to avoid, may affect reproduction, liver, kidneys, birth defects, carcinogenic, teratogen Packet cake mix, packet trifle mix, jelly crystals, cereal, soft drinks, blackcurrant products Lipstick, rouge and other cosmetics
E124 Ponceau 4R C.I. 16255 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hay fever, hives, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, hyperactivity, carcinogenic Packet trifle mix, jelly crystals, jam, packet cake mix, dessert toppings, tomato soup
E125 Ponceau SX Scarlet GN; FD&C Red No. 4; C.I. Food Red 1; C.I. 14700 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E126 Ponceau 6R C.I. 16250; C.I. food red 8; Crystal ponceau 6R; Crystal scarlet; Brilliant crystal scarlet 6R; Acid Red 44 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E127 Erythrosine C.I. 45430; FD&C Red 3; C.I. Food Red 14; C.I. Acid Red 51 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hyperactivity, learning difficulties, light sensitivity, may affect liver, heart, thyroid, reproduction, stomach, carcinogenic Canned fruit cocktail, biscuits, glace cherries, packet trifle mix, canned red cherries, mar-aschino cherries, sausage casings Toothpaste, dental disclosing tablets, rouge, medications
E128 Red 2G C.I. 18050 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, angioedema, hyperactivity, chronic hives, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, carcinogenic Cooked meat products, burger meats, sausages
E129 Allura Red AC C.I. 16035; Food Red 17; FD&C Red 40 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, asthma, hyperactivity, allergic reactions, hay fever, hives, aspirin, sensitive people may wish to avoid, adverse reproductive effects in animals, carcinogenic Packet cake mix, packet trifle mix, jelly crystals, cereals, chocolate biscuits Cosmetics, lipstick, medications
E130 Indanthrene Blue RS C.I. vat blue 4; carbon paper blue; blue O; carbanthrene blue 2R; fenan blue RSN; graphtol blue RL; medium blue; monolite fast blue 3R; indanthrene; indanthrone; pigment blue 60; or C.I. 69800 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E131 Patent Blue V C.I. 42051 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, gastrointestinal symptoms, anaphylaxis, hives, hyperactivity, allergic reaction, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid Scotch eggs? Medical diagnostic dye
E141 Copper phaeophytins C.I. 75810; Copper complexes of Chlorophyll & Chlorophyllins Colouring Halaal Chlorophyll Health Code: Green, safe in food use Soup, sauce, natural fruits in liquid
E1410 Monostarch Phosphate N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with phosphates Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Various foods
E1412 Distarch Phosphate N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with phosphates. Health Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Fruit pie fillings, instant puddings, instant desserts, sauces, soup mix Cosmetics, water softener
E1413 Phoshated Distarch Phosphate N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal From E1410 & E1413 Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Flavoured yoghurt, ice cream, canned foods for infants
E1414 Acetylated Distarch Phosphate N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with phosphates & acetates Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Sauce, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E142 Green S Acid Brilliant Green; Food Green S; Lissamine Green; C.I. 44090 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Hyperactivity, asthma, skin rashes, insomnia, see Coal Tar Canned peas, mint sauce, packet cheesecake mix Textile industry
E1420 Acetylated Starch Starch acetate Thickener, Vegetable gum Halaal Esterification of food starches with acetates Health Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Sauces, chutney, desserts, baked products, confectionery
E1421 Acetylated Starch Monostarch Acetate Halaal Starch modified with vinyl acetate
E1422 Acetylated Distarch Adipate N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with adipic anhydride & acetic anhydride Health Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Sauces, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake, mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E143 Fast Green FCF Food green 3; FD&C Green No. 3; Green 1724; Solid Green FCF; C.I. 42053 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E1440 Hydroxypropyl Starch N/A Thickener, Vegetable gum Halaal Esterification of food starches with propylene oxide Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Sauces, pickles, yoghurt, dry cake mix, canned fruits, pie fillings
E1442 Hydroxypropyl Distarch Phosphate N/A Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal Esterification of food starches with phosphates & propylene oxide Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Canned soups, frozen desserts, sauces, cake mix
E1450 Starch Sodium Octenyl Succinate SSOS Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with octenyl succinic anhydride Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Essence, salad dressing, beverage whitener
E1451 Acetylated Oxidised Starch N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Esterification of food starches with phosphates & acetates Health Code: Yellow, Uncertatinities exist about the safety of modified starches especially in infants Canned food for infants and young children, confectionery
E150 Caramel Colour (Sulphite Ammonia) N/A Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Yellow, Hyperactivity, soft to liquid stools & increased bowel movements, blood toxicity in rats, inhibits metabolism of B6 in rabbits, serious doubts exist on safety Stout, cola drinks, chocolate, gravy browning, jams, confectionery
E150(a) Caramel Colour (Plain-Spirit) N/A Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Yellow, Gastrointestinal problems, needs to be tested for mutagenic, teratogenic, subacute and reproductive effects Brown bread, cola drinks, chocolate, ice cream, jams, sweets
E150(b) Caramel Colour (Caustic Sulphite) N/A Colouring, Flavouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Yellow, Hyperactivity, may affect liver, stomach problems Whisky, brandy, ice cream
E150(c) Caramel Colour (Ammonia) N/A Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Hyperactivity, may affect liver, stomach, reproduction, caused convulsions in some animal tests, blood toxicity in rats Soy sauce, oyster sauce, biscuits, jams, dark bread, pickles, chocolate, coatings
E150(d) Sulphite Ammonia Caramel Halaal
E1505 Triethyl Citrate Ethyl citrate; citric acid ethyl ester. Thickener, Sequestrant Halaal Triethyl ester of citric acid Health Code: Green, Can provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, citrates may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for blood, liver and pancreatic function Processed egg whites, smoke flavour Nail polish, perfume base
E151 Black PN Brilliant Black PN; C.I. 28440 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red++, asthma, hyperactivity, may affect kidneys, stomach, NRC, carcinogenic Blackcurrant cake mix, brown sauce, eggnog, drinking yoghurt
E1519 Benzyl Alcohol Benzenemethanol; phenylcarbinol; phenylmethanol; alpha-hydroxy toluene Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E152 Black 7984 Food Black 2; C.I. 27755 Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E1520 Propylene Glycol 1,2-Propanediol; methyl glycol; 1,2-dihydroxypropane; Propan-1,2-diol Humectant, Solvent Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Contact dermatitis, lactic acidosis, dry skin, respiratory, immuno- and neurotoxicity, CNS depression and kidney damage in animals Confectionery, baked goods, chocolate products, sweetened coconut, toppings Suntan lotion, toothpaste, lipstick, baby lotion, pesticides, antifreeze
E154 Brown FK Kipper Brown; Food Brown Colouring Halaal ixture of synthetic dyes Health Code: Red++, Asthma, allergic reactions, hives, may affect heart, kidneys, liver, thyroid, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRC Kippers, smoked and cured fish, cooked ham, potato chips
E155 Brown HT C.I. 20285; Chocolate Brown HT Colouring Halaal Mixture of synthetic dyes Health Code: Red++, Asthma, allergic reactions, hives, may affect heart, kidneys, NRC, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRC Chocolate cake mix, chocolate biscuits
E160(a) Beta-Carotene Carotaben; Provatene; Solatene Colouring Halaal Carrots Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels Margarine, dairy blend, reduced fat spread, cakes, jams, cheese Cosmetics, animal feed, cigarettes
E160(b) Annatto Bixin; Norbixin; C.I. 75120; Orlean; Rocou Colouring Halaal Vegetable Dye Health Code: Red, Anatto may cause irritability and head banging in children, hives, hypotension, pruritis, bixin and norbixin, under-going toxicity testing Margarine, baked goods, reduced fat spreads, dairy products, breakfast cereals Fabric dye, soap, varnish, body paints
E160(c) Capsanthin Capsorubin; Paprika extract; Oleoresin Colouring Halaal Red Pepper Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effects Cheese slices, chicken pies, condiments, soup Poultry feed
E160(d) Lycopene C.I. 75125 Colouring Halaal Tomato Extract Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effects on body Nutritional bars, soups, yoghurt, beverages
E160(e) beta-apo-8-carotenal C30; beta-8-apocarotenal Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cream cheese spread, cheese slices, processed cheese
E160(f) beta apo-8-carotenoic acid ethyl ester N/A Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Processed foods
E161(a) Flavoxanthin C.I. 75135 Halaal Extracted from food; check if it contains oils & fats
E161(b) Lutein Xanthophyll; C.I. 75135; vegetable luteol; beta-eta-carotene-3,3-diol Colouring Halaal Egg yolk; nettles; algae; & petals of yellow flowers Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels Processed foods Animal and poultry feed
E161(c) Cryptoxanthin C.I. 75135; cryptoxanthol; caricaxanthin; hydroxy-beta-carotene; beta-carotene-3-ol. Colouring Halaal Petals & Berries Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may have beneficial effects Cheese slices, chicken pies, condiments, soup Poultry feed
E161(d) Rubixanthin C.I. 75135; Halaal Hipberries & Flowers
E161(e) Violaxanthin Violoxanthin; zeanthin diepoxide; C.I. 75315. Halaal Yellow Pansies
E161(f) Rhodoxanthin C.I. 75135 Halaal Yew Seeds
E161h Zeaxanthin Zeaxanthol; anchovyxanthin; ß,ß-carotene-3,3'-diol Halaal Vegatable and mainly Marigold flowers
E161i Citranaxanthin N/A Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E161j Astaxanthin Ovoester; astaxanthine Halaal Microalgae
E162 Beetroot Red Betanin; Betanidin Colouring Halaal Beetroot extract Health Code: Green, safe in food use, contains nitrates so NRC Desserts, jellies, jams, liquorice, sweets Cosmetics
E163 Anthocyanins Schultz 1394; Schultz 1400 Colouring Halaal grape skin; red cabbage Health Code: Green, safe in food use, considered to have protective effects in the body Soft drinks, jams, ice cream, wines, yoghurt, sweets, preserves Vitamin tablets
E170 Calcium Carbonate Carbonic acid calcium salt; Kulubrite Colouring, Firming Agent Halaal minerals argonite, calcite & vaterite Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause abdominal pain, constipation Bread, biscuits, confectionery, ice cream, cakes, sweets, canned fruit and vegetables Cosmetics, face powder, bleaches, vitamin tablets, cigarettes
E171 Titanium Dioxide C.I. 77891; Unitane Colouring, Opacifier Halaal Mineral Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, skin contact can cause irritation, limited evidence of cancer in animal studies, see Nanoparticles Pan sugar coated confectionery, sweets, chewing gum, icing sugar, jam, jellies Bath powder, face powder, ointment, sunscreen, marker ink, paints
E172 Iron Oxides & Iron Hydroxides C.I. 77492 (yellow/brown); C.I. 77491 (red); C.I. 77499 (brown) Colouring Halaal Mineral Health Code: Yellow, Iron is potentially toxic in all forms, excess can lead to increased risk of numerous health conditions Salmon and shrimp paste or spread, cake and dessert mixes, meat paste Pet foods, dying egg shells, face powder, eye make-up
E173 Aluminium C.I. 77000; Aluminum Colouring Halaal Mineral Health Code: Red, Ingestion or inhalation can aggravate kidney & lung disorders, cardiovascular, reproductive and neurotoxicity, evidence of a link with Alzheimer's, European Parliament said aluminium additives should be banned External decoration on cakes, etc Cosmetics, cooking pots and pans, antiperspirant, silver finish to pills and tablets
E174 Silver C.I. 77820; Colouring Halaal Mineral Health Code: Yellow, Toxic in very large doses, should not be consumed, accumulates in tissues, argyria (blue grey skin), kidney damage External decoration on cakes, silver dragees, silver coloured almonds Cosmetics, nail polish
E175 Gold C.I. 77480 Colouring Halaal Mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use, rare allergic reactions, neutrotoxicity External decoration on chocolate confectionery Cosmetics
E180 Pigment Rubine Lithol Rubine BK; C.I. 15850 Colouring Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, hay fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, insomnia, hyperactivity Rind on hard cheeses such as Edam Cosmetics, pharamaceutical preparations
E181 Tannin Tannic acid; gallotannin; gallotannic acid Halaal from nutgall
E200 Sorbic Acid 2,4-Hexadienoic acid; 2-propenyl-acrylic acid Preservative, Humectant Halaal Berries; Synthetically Health Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, asthma, contact dermatitis, erythema, skin irritation, behavioural problems Frozen pizza, pie fillings, cheese, cheesecake, cheese spread, chocolate syrup Cosmetics, mouthwash, toothpaste, ointments, dental cream
E201 Sodium Sorbate N/A Halaal Sorbic Acid
E202 Potassium Sorbate Sorbic acid potassium salt; BB powder Preservative Halaal Sorbic Acid Health Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, asthma, skin irritation, behavioural problems Bread, cheese, baked goods, cheese cake, wine making, chocolate Cosmetics, cigarettes
E203 Calcium Sorbate N/A Preservative Halaal Sorbic Acid Health Code: Yellow, Contact hives, skin irritation, asthma, allergic reactions, behavioural problems Bread, cheese spread, cottage cheese, soft drinks, chocolate syrup, cheesecake Ointments, cosmetics
E210 Benzoic acid Benzene carboxylic acid; phenylformic acid; dracyclic acid Preservative, Flavoring Halaal Synthetic Health Code: Red++, Asthma, hives, behavioural problems, hyperactivity, may affect lungs, eye and skin irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, neurotoxicity Brewed soft drinks, cider, non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarine, ice cream Cosmetics, hair rinse, skin cleanser, perfume, pharmaceuticals
E211 Sodium Benzoate N/A Preservative Halaal Synthesis from Benzoic Acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, contact dermatitis, hay fever, mouth and skin irritation, hyperactivity, anaphylaxis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid Bottled soft drinks, fruit juice, jams, pickles, condiments, baked goods, tomato paste Toothpaste, eye cream, medical diagnostic aid for liver function
E212 Potassium Benzoate Benzoic acid potassium salt trihydrate Preservative Halaal Benzoic Acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, eczema, allergic reactions, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid Low joule jams and spreads, chilli paste, glkace cherries Cosmetics
E213 Calcium Benzoate Benzoic acid calcium salt trihydrate Preservative Halaal Benzoic Acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, anaphylaxis, hyperactivity, behavioural problems, eczema, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRC Brewed soft drinks, non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarine, ice cream
E214 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate Ethyl para-hydroxybenzoate; Ethylparaben Preservative Halaal Benzoic Acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxis Brewed soft drinks, ice cream, cider non-dairy dip, chewing gum, fruit juice, margarine Cosmetic products
E215 Ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt Sodium ethyl para-hydroybenzoate Preservative Halaal Benzoic Acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, numbness in the mouth, hives, gastric irritation, allergic contact demartitis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid
E216 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate propylparaben; n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate; propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Halaal benzoic acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxis Beverages, baked goods, sweets, jellies, preserves, fruit flavourings Cosmetics, shampoo, foundation cream
E217 Propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt Sodium n-propyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Sodium propyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, numbness in the mouth, gastric irritation, allergic contact dermatitis, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid
E218 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate Methyl paraben; Methyl para-hydroxybenzoate Preservative Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxis Jellies, preserves, jams, baked goods, fruit juices, salad dressings Cosmetics, skin and hair care products
E219 Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate sodium salt Sodium methyl para-hydroxybenzoate; Sodium methyl hydroxybenzoate Preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, allergic reactions, skin redness, itching and swelling, anaphylaxis
E220 Sulphur Dioxide Sulfur dioxide; Sulfurous anhydride; sulfurous oxide Preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, broncho spasm, bronchoconstriction, hypotension, anaphylaxis, bronchitis, destroys vitamins A and B1 in food, animal mutagen Dried fruit, beer, cider, fruit juice, gelatine, wines, pickles, soft drinks, dessicated coconut, vinegar
E221 Sodium Sulphite N/A Preservative Halaal Synthetic from sulphurous acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, gastric irritation, skin rash, nausea, diarrhoea, destroys vitamin B content in food, those with poor liver or kidney function should avoid Cut fruits, dried fruit, maraschino, cherries, prepared fruit pie mix, frozen apples
E222 Sodium Hydrogen Sulphite Sodium bisulphite; acid sodium sulphite Preservative Halaal From sulphurous acid Health Code: Red, Bronchial asthma, chronic hives, skin irritation, mutagenic Tomato paste, dried fruit, jams, jellies, fruit juices Mouthwash, hair dye, wart remover
E223 Sodium Metabisulphite Disodium pyrosulphite; sodium pyrosulphite Preservative Halaal Synthetic from sulphurous acid Health Code: Red, Asthma (life threatening attacks), hay fever, chronic hives, atopic dermatitis, harmful to aquatic organisms Bread and flour products, jellies, dried fruits, tomato paste, maraschino cherries Hair products, bath preparations, underarm deodorant
E224 Potassium metabisulphite Potassium pyrosulphite Preservative, Antioxidant Halaal Health Code: Red, Asthma, hives, behavioural problems, gastric irritation, anaphylaxis Cheese and cheese products, home wine brewing kits Bleaching straw
E225 Sodium Sulfite Sodium Sulphite; Sulfurous acid, disodium salt; Disodium sulfite. Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E226 Calcium Sulphite N/A Preservative, Firming agent Halaal From sulphurous acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, skin irritation, gastric irritation, may affect kidneys, gastro-intestinal tract and liver Canned fruits and vegetables Disinfectant, home wine brewing
E227 Calcium Hydrogen Sulphite Calcium bisulphite solution Preservative, Firming agent Halaal From sulphurous acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, gastric irritation, may affect liver, kidneys, lungs, stomach Canned fruits and vegetables
E228 Potassium Hydrogen Sulphite N/A Preservative Halaal ynthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Asthma, skin reactions, anaphylaxis, gastric irritation, hyperactivity Low joule jam, dried fruits
E230 Biphenyl Diphenyl; 1,1-Biphenyl; bibenzene; phenylbenzene Antifungal preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red++, Exposure can cause eye and nasal irritation, vomiting, nausea, CNS depression, liver, kidney, respiratory, cardiovascular and neurotixicity Used to fumigate some fruits (residue on fruit skins), food wrapped in paper impregnated with diphenyl, citrus peel, marmalade
E231 2-Hydroxybiphenyl o-Phenylphenol; orthophenylphenol; (1,1-Biphenyl)-2-ol; 2-biphenylol; orthoxenol Preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Nausea, convulsions, vomiting, circulatory collapse, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, coma, carcinogenic Used in the manufacture of many food additives
E232 Sodium biphenyl-2-yl oxide Sodium O-phenylphenol; Sodium orthophenylphenate; (trihydrate) Preservative, Antifungal Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Vomiting, convulsions, irritation of nose and eyes, depigmentation, photosensitiser Sprayed onto fruit skins, products containing fruit skins, marmalade Cosmetics, detergents, cooling fluids
E233 2-(Thiazol-4-yl) benzimidazole Thiabendazole; Omnizole; Thiaben; Tribendazole Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E234 Nisin N/A Preservative, Antimicrobial Halaal Biosynthetic Health Code: Yellow, The European parliament said in 2003 that it should not be used as it could cause antibiotic resistance in humans Processed cheese, canned vegetables and fruit, semolina and tapioca puddings
E235 Natamycin Pimiricin; antibiotic A 5283; tennecetin; CL 12625 Preservative Halaal Microbiological Synthesis Health Code: Red, Moderately toxic by ingestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, mild skin irritation Cured processed meats, cheese rind Drug used to treat fungal infections of the eyes and eyelids
E236 Formic Acid Methanoic Acid; Ameisensaure Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E237 Sodium Formate Sodium formiate; formic acid sodium salt Halaal From formic acid
E238 Calcium Formate Calcium formiate; formic acid calcium salt Halaal from formic acid
E239 Hexamine Hexamethylenetetramine; Methenamine; HMT; HMTA Preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Red, Contact dermatitis, gastrointestinal upset, kidney damage, genetic mutation in animals, suspected carcinogen Provolone cheese Cosmetics, adhesives, coatings lubricating oils
E240 Formaldehyde Methanal; oxomethane; oxymethylene; methylene oxide; formic aldehyde; methyl aldehyde Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E242 Dimethyl Dicarbonate Dicarbonic acid; dimethyl ester; dimethyl polycarbonate; Velcorin Preservative, Fungicide Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Sport drinks, fruit drinks, instant teas Yeast inhibitor in wine
E249 Potassium Nitrite N/A Preservative, Colour fixative Halaal From nitrous acid Health Code: Red, Asthma, kidney inflamation, behavioural problems, dizziness, headache, may form nitrosamines, not permitted in foods for babies under 6 months, inhibits oxygen in the blood, carcinogenic Corned, cured, pickled, manufactured and pressed meats
E250 Sodium Nitrite Nitrous acid sodium salt; erinitrit Preservative Halaal Synthetic from sodium nitrate Health Code: Red, Nausea, headaches, dizziness, not permitted in foods for babies less than 6 months, toxic to aquatic organisms Canned, cured, manufactured and pressed meats, sausages, bacon Anticorrosive in some cosmetics
E251 Sodium Nitrate Chile saltpetre; cubic niter;soda niter Preservative Halaal Mineral Health Code: Red, Nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headaches, migraine, may affect thyroid gland, not permitted in foods for babies less than 6 months Manufactured meats
E260 Acetic Acid Acetic acid glacial; Aci-Jel Food Acid Butter Halaal Synthetic Health Code: Green, regarded as safe in food use, skin irritation,, hives, skin rash, caused cancer in rats and mice orally and by injection, harmful to aquatic organisms Pickles, chutney, cheese, baked goods, sauces Animal feeds, hair dye, hand lotion, cigarettes
E261 Potassium Acetate N/A Acidity Regulator, Preservative Halaal Acetic Acid Health Code: Green, People with impaired kidney function or cardiac disease may wish to avoid Pickles, salad cream, chutney, cheese, brown sauce, fruit sauce Diuretic
E262 Sodium Hydrogen Diacetate Sodium Acid Acetate (anhydrous / trihydrate); sodium diacetate Acidity Regulator, Preservative Halaal Acetic acid & sodium acetate Health Code: Green, safe in food use, skin and eye irritation, moderate toxicity by ingestion Sweets, jams, jellies, soup mixes, snack foods, cereals Cosmetics, textiles, photographic and dye processes
E263 Calcium Acetate Brown acetate of lime; gray acetate of lime Food Acid, Firming agent Halaal From acetic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, low oral toxicity Bread, pickles, beer, ale, cheese, salad cream Dyeing and curing skins, cosmetic fragrance
E264 Ammonium Acetate Acetic acid ammonium salt Halaal Synthetic Chemical
E270 Lactic Acid D-Lactic acid; DL-Lactic acid; 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; racemic lactic acid Food acid, Preservative Halaal Fruit / seeds; carbohydrates Health Code: Green, safe in food use. In cosmetics stinging of the skin in sensitive people, not recommended for babies under 3 months Infant formula, salad dressings, confectionery, soft drinks, tartare sauce Cosmetics, skin freshners, cigarettes
E280 Propionic Acid Propanoic acid; Methylacetic acid; ethylformic acid Preservative Halaal Synthetic chemical; from wood pulp Health Code: Yellow, Migraines, skin irritation, headaches, hamful to aquatic organisms Ice cream, baked goods, sweets, processed cheeses Bakery use
E281 Sodium Propionate Propionic acid sodium salt Preservative Halaal From propionic acid Health Code: Yellow, Behavioural problems, skin irritation, learning difficulties, asthma, gastric irritation, headache, migraines see Calcium Propionate E282] Confectionery, baked goods, frostings, cakes Cosmetics, medical treatment of fungal infections of the skin
E282 Calcium Propionate Propionic acid calcium salt Mould inhibitor, Preservative Halaal From propionic acid Health Code: Yellow, Irritability, asthma, migraine, fatigue, learning difficulties, aggression, gastric irritation, headaches, sensitivity to propionates occurs in conjunction with sensitivity to other chemicals Bread, processed cheese, poultry stuffing, chocolate products Cosmetics, antifungal medication
E283 Potassium Propionate Propionic acid potassium salt Preservative Halaal From propionic acid Health Code: Green, Asthma, learning difficulties, headache, behabioural problems, migraine, see also Calcium Propionate E282 Bread, biscuits, cakes, pastries and other flour products Cosmetics
E284 Boric Acid Boracic acid; orthoboric acid Preservative, Oral care agent Halaal Natural mineral Health Code: Red++, Severe poisonings have occured after ingestion or application to abraded skin, kidney, cardiovascular, reproductive, liver and neurotoxicity Cavier, fungus control on citrus fruits Baby powder, bath powder, soap, eye cream, mouthwash, cosmetics
E285 Sodium Tetraborate Borax; sodium borate; sodium biborate Preservative Halaal Mineral Health Code: Red, Toxic, rarely used with foods, chronic exposure can cause red peeling skin, seizures and kidney failure Meats imported from the USA? Shaving cream, cold cream, foundation cream, insecticides
E296 Malic Acid DL-Malic acid; Hydroxybutanedioic acid; hydroxysuccinic acid; apple acid; 2-hydroxy-1,4-butanedioic acid Halaal Acidity Regulator, Antioxidant Synthetic; microbiological Health Code: Green, safe in food use, skin and mucous membrane irritation, may aggravate herpes simplex symptoms Sweetened coconut, tinned oxtail soup, low calorie softdrinks, wines
E297 Fumaric Acid (E)-2-Butadioic acid; allomaleic acid; boletic acid Food acid, Antioxidant Halaal Biosynthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use Brewed soft drinks, confections, packet cheesecake mix Cosmetics
E300 Vitamin C L-Ascorbic acid; Ascorbic acid Preservative Antioxidant Halaal Biosynthetic Health Code: Green, safe in foods. vitamin c has many beneficial health effects, excessive consumption can cause skin rashes, painful urination and diarrhoea Confectionery, breakfast cereals, pressed meats, corned meat Cosmetic cream, hair dye, hair conditioner
E301 Vitamin C Sodium Sodium L-Ascorbate; Sodium L-(+)-ascorbate Antioxidant Halaal From Vitamin C Health Code: Green, safe in food use Foods for infants, frozen fish, wine, vinegar, beer Cosmetics
E302 Vitamin C Calcium Calcium ascorbate; Calcium L-ascorbate Preservative, Antioxidant Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels Concentrated milk products, cooked and cured meat products
E303 Potassium Ascorbate Ascorbic acid potassium salt Halaal from ascorbic acid
E304 6-o-Palmitoyl-L-ascorbic Acid Ascorbyl palmitate Antioxidant Preservative Halaal Synthetic Chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Dairy blend, salad oil, instant mashed potato, reduced fat spread
E306 Vitamin E Oil Extracts Soya bean oil; wheat germ oil; rice germ oil; cottonseed oil; maize oil; green leaves oil Antioxidant Halaal Extracts of natural (vegetable) origin rich in tocopherols (vitamin E). Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may be destroyed by freezing Dairy blend, margarine, salad oil, reduced fat spread Deodorant, baby preparations, supplements
E307 Alpha-Tocopherol Vitamin E; DL-alpha-tocopherol Antioxidant Nutrient Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may be destroyed by freezing White flour, white bread, white rice, margarine
E308 Gamma-Tocopherol Vitamin E; DL-gamma-tocopherol Antioxidant Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, This type of Vitamin E has been shown to plasy several protective roles in the body Dairy blend, salad oil, margarine, reduced fat spread
E309 Delta-Tocopherol Vitamin E; DL-delta-tocopherol Antioxidant Halaal Synthetic chemical. Health Code: Green, Vitamin E has been shown to play protective roles in the body Salad oil, reduced fat spread, dairy blend, margarine
E310 Propyl Gallate Propyl 3,4,5 trihydroxybenzoate Antioxidant Halaal synthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologically Health Code: Yellow, Asthma, contact demartitis, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, not permitted in foods for babies and young children Dairy blend, edible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, chewing gum, margarine, salad oil, peanut, butter Cosmetic cream and lotion
E311 Octyl Gallate N/A Antioxidant Halaal Synthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologically Health Code: Yellow, Mildly toxic by ingestion,allergic reactions, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid Edible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, margarine, dripping, salad oil
E312 Dodecyl gallate Dodecyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate. Antioxidant Halaal Synthesised from gallic acid which is produced from tannins extracted from nut galls or synthesised microbiologically Health Code: Yellow, Allergic reactions, NRC, contact dermatitis, gastric irritation, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, caused pathological changes in the spleen, kidneys and liver in test rats Dairy blend, edible fats and oils, reduced fat spread, margarine Cosmetic cream, ink
E315 Erythorbic Acid Isoascorbic acid; isovitamin C; saccharosonic acid; glucosaccharosonic acid Antioxidant, Preservative Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, May cause allergic reactions in some people, has only 5% of the vitamin capacity of ascorbic acid Breakfast cereal, beverages, flour products, confectionery, pressed meat products Cosmetics
E316 Sodium Erythorbate Isoascorbic acid sodium salt; Mercate 20; Neo-Cebitate Antioxidant Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use, has not been studied for mutagenic and teratogenic effects Cider, frozen fruit, meat products, baked goods, beverages Cosmetics, water softener, detergent
E317 Erythorbin Acid Erythorbic acid Halaal Same chemical as erythorbic acid (manufactured from sucrose)
E318 Sodium Erythorbin Erythorbin acid sodium salt Halaal from erythorbin
E319 tert-Butylhydroxyquinone TBHQ Halaal synthetic chemical
E320 Butylated Hydroxyanisole BHA; Antracine 12 Antioxidant Preservative Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Hives, somnolence, hay fever, headache, wheezing, fatigue, asthma, NRC, may affect kidneys, liver, thyroid, stomach, reproduction, hormone disruption, carcinogenic, teratogen Instant mashed potato, edible fats and oils, chewing gum, reduced fat spread, margarine, processed meats, ice cream Cosmetics
E321 Butylated Hydroxytoluene BHT; Antracine 8; 2,6-di-ter-butyl-p-cresol Antioxidant Preservative Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red++, Chronic hives, demartitis, fatigue, asthma, aggressive behaviour, bronchospasm, NRC, may affect reproduction, kidneys, stomach, liver, harmful to aquatic organisms Edible fats and oils, chewing gum, fish products, dry breakfast cereals, beer and malt drinks, polyethylene film for wrapping food Shaving cream, baby oil, baby lotion, lipstick, eyeliner, packaging materials, rubber, jet fuel
E322 Lecithin Phosphatidylcholine; Lecithol Stabiliser, Emulsifier Halaal Soybean (mainly); Eggs; Leguminous seeds Health Code: Green, safe in food use, people with allergy to soy may wish to avoid Chocolate, dried milk, margarine, dessert mix, confectionery Cosmetics, lipstick, hand cream, pharmaceuticals
E325 Sodium Lactate Lactic acid sodium salt; L-sodium lactate; Purasal S Humectant, Bulking agent Halaal synthesised from lactic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoid Biscuits, uncured hams Moisturiser, skin and hair products
E326 Potassium Lactate Lactic acid potassium salt Acidity Regulator, Humectant Halaal synthesised from lactic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoid Biscuits, cheese confectionery, foods for infants
E327 Calcium Lactate Lactic acid calcium salt Food acid, Buffer Halaal Synthesised from lactic acid Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, may cause cardiac and gastro-intestinal disturbance, people with lactose intolerance may wish to avoid Confectionery, baking powder, canned bean sprouts, condensed milk Oral menstrual drug products? (unsafe), dentifrices, animal feeds
E329 Magnesium Lactate lactic acid magnesium salt Halaal from lactic acid (biofermentation of starch)
E330 Citric Acid Citric Acid Monohydrate; Citric Acid Anhydrous; B-hydroxytricarballic acid; 2-hydroxy-1,2,3,-propane tricarboxylic acid Acidity Regulator, Flavouring Halaal microbiological fermentation; citrus fruits; pineapple waste Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, has a number of health benefits, may provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may aggravate the herpes simplex virus, in cosmetic use it may cause exfoliative dermatitis, eye and skin irritation Biscuits, cheese, ice cream, jams, jellies, processed cheese, soft drinks, fruit drinks, infant formula Freckle cream, eye lotion, nail bleaches, skin freshners, hair rinses
E331 Sodium Citrate Citric acid sodium salt Acidity Regulator, Emulsifier Halaal synthesised from citric acid Health Code: Green, Can provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may alter urinary excretion of some drugs making them either less effective or more potent Infant formula, cottage cheese, ice cream, evaporated milk, jams, preserves, fruit jellies Cosmetics
E331(a) Sodium Dihydrogen Citrate Monosodium citrate Halaal synthesised from citric acid
E331(b) Disodium Citrate Citric acid disodium salt Halaal synthesised from citric acid
E331(c) Trisodium Citrate Citric acid trisodium salt; citrosodine Halaal synthesised from citric acid
E332 Potassium Dihydrogen Citrate Citric acid monopotassium salt. Monopotassium citrate. Tripotassium citrate; potassium citrate Acidity Regulator, Stabiliser Halaal synthesised from citric acid Health Code: Green, May provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for pancreatic, blood and liver function Confectionery, jellies, preserves
E333 Calcium Citrate mono- di- & triCalcium citrate Food acid, Butter Halaal synthesised from citric acid Health Code: Green, may provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG, citrates may interfere with the results of laboratory tests for blood, liver and pancreatic function Confectionery, jellies, jams, to improve baking properties in flour
E338 Phosphoric acid Orthophosphoric acid Acidity Regulator Halaal phosphate ore Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, excess may lead to tooth erosion and calcium loss in bones Cheese products, soft drinks, jellies, sweets
E339(a) Sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate N/A Halaal phosphoric acid
E339(b) diSodium hydrogen orthophosphate N/A Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E339(c) triSodium hydrogen orthophosphate N/A Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(a) Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate monopotassium phosphate; MKP Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(b) diPotassium hydrogen orthophosphate dipotassium phosphate; DKP; potassium phosphate dibasic Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E340(c) triPotassium orthophosphate dipotassium phosphate; DKP; potassium phosphate tribasic; tripotassium monophosphate Halaal Synthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(a) Calcium Tetrahydrogen Diorthophosphate monocalcium phosphate; MCP; acid calcium phosphate; ACP; monocalcium orthophosphate; monobasic calcium phosphate; calcium biphosphate; calcium hydrogen phosphate. Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(b) Calcium Hydrogen Orthophosphate dicalcium phosphate; DCP; calcium phosphate dibasic; calcium hydrogen phosphate; secondary calcium phosphate Halaal synthesised from phosphoric acid
E341(c) triCalcium diorthophosphate tricalcium phosphate; calcium phosphate tribasic Halaal synthesised from calcium phosphate
E343 Monomagnesium Phosphate N/A Anticaking Agent Halaal synthesised Health Code: Green, safe in food use Dried milk, milk powder Dietary supplement
E350 Sodium Malate Malic acid sodium salt; Sodium hydrogen malate Acidity Regulator, Humectant Halaal from malic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use Fruit drink, soft drinks, sweetened coconut Anti-aging products
E351 Potassium Malate malic acid potassium salt Acidity Regulator Halaal from malic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use Fruit drinks, soft drinks, sweetened coconut
E352 Calcium Malate malic acid calcium salt; Calcium hydrogen malate Buffer Firming agent Halaal from malic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use Fruit drinks, soft drinks, sweetened coconut
E355 Adipic Acid Hexanedioic acid Raising Agent Buffer Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, Regard as safe in food use at low levels, moderately toxic by ingestion, toxic effects in rats including death, teratogenic Beverages, baked goods, oils, snack foods, processed cheese Manufacture of plastics and nylons
E356 Sodium Adipate Adipic acid sodium salt Acidity Regulator, Firming agent Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Beverages, baked goods, processed cheese, snack foods
E357 Potassium Adipate Adipic acid potassium salt Acidity Regulator, Buffer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, see Adipic Acid E355 Low salt foods Boiler water
E363 Succinic Acid N/A Flavour enhancer, Acidity regulator Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause vomitting and diarrhoes Salt substitute Cosmetics, inks, perfume, lacquers, oaint, mouthwash
E365 Sodium Fumarate monosodium fumarate; fumaric acid sodium salt Halaal from fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E366 Potassium Fumarate fumaric acid potassium salt Halaal from fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E367 Calcium Fumarate fumaric acid calcium salt Halaal from fumaric acid (biosynthetic)
E370 1,4-Heptonolactone N/A Halaal synthetic chemical
E375 Nicotinic Acid Niacin Halaal synthetic from nicotine
E380 triAmmonium Citrate citric acid triammonium salt; ammonium citrate tribasic Acidity Regulator Halaal from citric acid Health Code: Green, May provoke symptoms in those who react to MSG Wide variety of foods including processed cheese, cheese spread
E381 Ammonium Ferric Citrate Ferric ammonium citrate; ammonium ferric citrate green Halaal from citric acid
E385 Calcium Disodium EDTA Calcium Disodium Edetate; Calcium Disodium ethylenediamine NNNN tetra-acetate Preservative, Sequestrant Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Muscle cramps, blood in the urine, intestinal upset, kidney damage, mineral imbalance, chromosome damage, can increase uptake of heavy metals, may affect liver and reproduction Dressings, soft drinks, sandwich spreads, beer, ale, margarine, instant teas Used medically to detoxify heavy metal poisoning
E400 Alginic Acid Norgine; polymannuronic acid; Sazio Thickener, Vegetable gum Halaal from seaweeds Health Code: Green, safe in foods at low levels, alginates inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in some animal tests Ice cream, dessert mix, custard mix, flavoured milk, cordials, infant formula, yoghurt Cosmetics and textiles
E401 Sodium Alginate Alginic acid sodium salt; Algin; Sodium polymannuronate Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from brown seaweeds Health Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal tests Frozen desserts, jams, fruit jelly preserves Baby lotion, wave sets, shaving cream
E402 Potassium Alginate Potassium polymannuronate; alginic acid potassium salt Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from alginic acid Health Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal tests Ice cream, yoghurt, custard mix
E403 Ammonium Alginate alginic acid ammonium salt Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from alginic acid Health Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, alginates inhibit absorption of essential nutrients in animal tests Dessert mix, custard mix, ice cream, yoghurt Cosmetics, boiler water
E404 Calcium Alginate Algin; alginic acid calcium salt Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from alginic acid Health Code: Green, Alginates may have beneficial effects on health, they inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in animal tests Ice cream, soft and cottage cheeses, cheese snacks, instant desserts Hand lotion and cream, shampoo, wave sets
E405 Propylene glycol alginate Propylene glycol alginate ester; Propane-1,2-diol alginate Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Sythetic from alginic acid Health Code: Yellow, Can cause allergic reactions, reduced growth and loose stools in animal studies, alginates inhibited absorption of essential nutrients in some animal tests Frozen custard, salad dressing, ice cream, fruit sherbet Cosmetics
E406 Agar Agar Agar; Japanese isinglass; gelose; vegetable gelatine Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal seaweed Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, mildly toxic by ingestion, allergic reactions Ice cream, baked goods, desserts, manufactured meats, jellies Cosmetics, bulk laxative
E407 Carrageen Irish moss Thickener, Vegetable gum Halaal seaweed extract Health Code: Red, May affect gastrointestinal tract, stomach, NRC, ulcerative colitis, animasl carcinogen Ice cream, dessert mix, confectionery, pastries, biscuits, chocolate products Cosmetics, cough medicines, toothpaste
E407a Processed Eucheuma Seaweed PES; PNG-carrageenan; semi-refined carrageenan Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal In addition to carrageenan polysaccharides, processed eucheuma seaweed may contain up to 15% of insoluble algal cellulose and minor amounts of other insoluble matter. Artic Health Code: Yellow, Uncertainities exist as to the safety of this additive Processed foods
E410 Locust Bean Gum Ceratonia gum; Carob bean gum. Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal from pod of Carob tree. Also for Carob powder Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, may lower cholesterol levels Infant formula, ice cream, pickles, icings, toppings, chutney, cheese, confectionery Cosmetics, animal feed, detergent, adhesives
E412 Guar Gum Guar flour; Jaguar gum; Cluster bean; Decorpa Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal pea extract Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause abdominal cramps, nausea, flatulence, diarrhoea Baked goods, jam, cereals, cheese spreads, jellies, beverages, infant foods, toppings Binding tablets, cosmetics, slimming aids (caution recommended)
E413 Tragacanth Gum dragon; Gum tragacanth Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal from trunk and branches of Astragalus tree Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, adverse reactions such as asthma, abdominal pain, contact dermatitis, dyspnoea, anaphylaxis and constipation can occur but are rare Sauces, fruit jelly, salad dressing, confections, icings Shaving cream, rouge, toothpaste foundation
E414 Gum Arabic Acacia; Sudan gum; Gum hashab; Kordofan gum Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal from stems & branches of Acacia tree Health Code: Yellow, Low oral toxicity, asthma, skin rash, hives, hay fever Confectionery, soft drinks, chewing gu, jelly, glazes cosmetics, hair products, medicines
E415 Xanthan gum Corn sugar gum; Polysaccharide B-1459 Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal fermentation of corn sugar Health Code: Green, safe in food use Jellies, sweets, dairy products, breakfast cereal, salad dressing Animal feeds, cigarettes
E416 Karaya Gum Sterculia gum; Indian tragacanth Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from trunk & stems of Sterculia tree Health Code: Yellow, Asthma, hives, hay fever, dermatitis, reduces nutrient intake, gastric irritation Ice cream, baked goods, sweets, gumdrops, frozen dairy desserts Hair-spray, setting lotion, hand lotion, toothpaste, shaving cream
E417 Tara Gum N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from seeds of Tara tree Health Code: Green, safe in food use Ice cream, cheese, bakery products, sauces
E418 Gellan gum N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal microbiological fermentation Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause diarrhoea Various foods
E420(i) Sorbitol D-Glucitol; D-sorbitol; L-gulitol; sorbit; Handsan Halaal synthesised from glucose
E420(ii) Sorbitol Syrup N/A Halaal Aqueous solution of sorbitol and hydrogenated oligosaccharides
E421 Mannitol Manna Sugar Sweetener, Humectant Halaal Prepared from seaweed or manna or by hydrogenation of glucose, sucrose, fructose, or monosaccharides Health Code: Red, Hypersensitivity reactions, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, hives, NRC and diabetics, kidney disfunction, gastric irritation, anaphylaxis Carbohydrate modified foods or low calories foods, chewing gum, sweets, jams, jellies Hand cream, hair grooming products
E425 Konjac gum N/A Emulsifier, Thickener Halaal from Konjac plant root Health Code: Yellow, Choking hazard in dry form, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, stomach problems, nutrient disruption Soups, gravy, jam, mayonnaise, lollies
E426 Soyabean Hemicellulose N/A Halaal soya bean
E432 Tween 20 Polysorbate 20; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal Lauric esters of sorbitol condensed with ethylene oxide Health Code: Red, Polysorbates can contain residues of harmful chemicalks, can increase the absorption of fat soluble substances Cosmetic cream and lotion
E434 Tween 40 Polysorbate 40; Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate Emulsifier Halaal Palmitate ester of sorbitol copolymerised with ethylene oxide Health Code: Red, Polysorbates can contain residues of harmful chemicalks, can increase the absorption of fat soluble substances Whipped cream, soup, beverages, confectionery
E442 Emulsifier YN Ammonium phosphatides Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Bread, chocolate, confectionery, frying oils
E444 Sucrose Acetate Isobutyrate SAIB; sucrose diacetate hexaisobutyrate Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use, produced liver damage in dogs but not in other species Citrus flavoured beverages
E450(a) diSodium Pyrophosphate diSodium dihydrogen diphosphate; DSPP; disodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate; acid sodium pyrophosphate; trisodium diphosphate; tetrapotassium diphosphate. Halaal sodium & potassium salts of pyrophosphoric acid (from phosphoric acid)
E450(b) pentaSodium Triphosphate STPP; Sodium tripolyphosphate; pentapotassium triphosphate; potassium tripolyphosphate Halaal Source: sodium & potassium salts of triphosphoric acid (from phophoric acid)
E450(c) Sodium Polyphosphates Polyphosphoric acid sodium or potassium salts Halaal Sodium & potassium salts of polyphosphoric acid (from phosphoric acid)
E450(v) Tetrapotassium Pyrophosphate tetrapotassium diphosphate; potassium pyrophosphate Halaal synthetic chemical
E451 Triphosphates (i) pentasodium triphosphate; (ii) pentapotassium triphosphate Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic chemicals Health Code: Green, safe in food use Processed cheese, meat and fish products, baking powder, cola drinks
E452 Polyphosphates (i) sodium polyphosophate; (ii) Potassium polyphosphate; (iii) sodium calcium polyphosphate; (iv) calcium polyphosphates. Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Meat and fish products, processed cheese, baking powder, cola drinks Fertilisers, detergents
E459 Beta-cyclodextrin N/A Processing aid Stabiliser Halaal from microbial action on starch Health Code: Green, safe in food use Processed foods Toothpaste, skin cream
E460 Cellulose Avicel (microcrystalline cellulose); Alpha-cellulose (powdered cellulose) Anticaking Agent, Binder Halaal cellulose walls of plant fibre Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cakes, sauces, soups, biscuits, bread, spreads, jams, ice cream Cosmetic cream, tablets
E461 Methylcellulose Methocel; Cologel Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal treatment of cellulose with methyl chloride Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, laxative effect with excess Infant formula, ice cream, toppings, pickles, chutney, confectionery, imitation fruit, soup Cosmetics, hand cream and lotion, sun cream, slimming aids
E462 Ethyl Cellulose N/A Halaal from wood pulp or chemical cotton
E463 Hydroxypropylcellulose N/A Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal treatment of cellulose with propylene oxide Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may cause allergic reactions Low fat cream, UHT cream Cosmetics, tobacco
E464 Hydoxypropylmethylcellulose Hypromellose Emulsifier, Thickener Halaal treatment of cellulose with methyl chloride & propylene oxide Health Code: Green, safe in food use, mild eye and skin irritation, allergic reactions Confectionery, infant formula, icing, topping, ice cream, pickles, soup, dried mixed fruit Cosmetics, hair and skin preparations, bubble bath, tanning lotion
E465 Ethylmethylcellulose Methylethylcellulose Thickener, Emulsifier Halaal from cellulose (plant) Health Code: Yellow, Can cause digestive problems, diarrhoea, flatulence, gastrointestinal disturbances Vegetable fat, low fat cream, imitation ice cream, whipped toppings Bulk laxative, tobacco
E466 Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt; CMC; Sodium caboxymethylcellulose; sodium cellulose glycolate; Carmellose sodium Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal Synthetically from cellulose (of plants) Health Code: Yellow, Poorly absorbed, flatulence, large amounts can cause diarrhoea and abdominal cramps, caused cancer and tumours in animal studies Infant formula, ice cream, icings, confectionery, cottage cheese, cream cheese spread Hair setting lotion, hand cream, medication, laxatives, antacids, tobacco
E467 Ethylhydroxyethyl Cellulose Bermocoll EBS 481 FQ; cellulose ethyl hydroxyethyl ether; ethyl 2-hydroxyethyl ether cellulose; etulos; Bermocoll E 511 FQ. Halaal synthetic chemical from cellulose
E468 Crosslinked Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose Crosslinked NaCMC Carrier Halaal from cellulose Health Code: Yellow, See Carboxy Methyl - cellulose (E466) Sweeteners
E469 Enzymetically Hydrolysed Carboxymethyl Cellulose N/A Thickener, Stabiliser Halaal from cellulose Health Code: Red, See Carboxy Methyl - cellulose (E466) Ice cream, soup, fatty meat products
E493 Sorbitan Monolaurate Span 20 Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal from sorbitol & lauric acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use
E495 Sorbitan Monopalmitate Span 40 Emulsifier, Stabiliser Halaal from sorbitol & palmitic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cake mixes
E500 Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium hydrogen carbonate; Baking soda; Bicarbonate of soda; Sodium sesquicarbonate; Trona Acidity Regulator, Anticaking agent Halaal Synthetic chemical from Sodium Carbonate (a mineral) Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, contact can cause forehead, scalp, and hand rash, respiratory distress, large doses can cause gastrointestinal bleeding, vomiting, diarrhoea, shock and death Confectionery, custard mix, flour products, ice cream mix, soup, jams, chocolate, malted milk powder Mouthwash, soap, bath, salts, vaginal douches, shampoo, laundry detergent, paper and glass manufacture
E501 Potassium Carbonate Potassium hydrogen carbonate Acidity Regulator, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, dermatitis of the scalp, forehead and hands, eye irritation, upper respiratory tract irritation Confections, cocoa products, low sodium salt substitute, soda water Shampoo, permanent wave lotion, washing powder
E503 Hartshorn; Ammonium hydrogen carbonate; Ammonium bicarbonate Buffer Nutraliser synthetic Halaal Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, contact can cause skin rashes on scalp, forehead and hands Baking powder, chocolate, cocoa Permanent wave solution and cream, fire extinguishers
E504 Magnesium Carbonate Magnesite Anticaking Agent, Alkali Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effect Sour cream, ice cream, canned peas, table salt Baby powder, face powder, perfume carrier
E507 Hydrochloric Acid N/A Acidity Regulator, Modifier Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cottage cheese, cream cheese Hair bleach, solvent
E508 Potassium Chloride N/A Gelling agent Halaal Mineral Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, intestinal ulcers, NRC, cardiovascular liver and respiratory toxicity Reduced sodium foods, low sodium sal substitute Cosmetics, fertiliser
E509 Calcium Chloride N/A Firming agent, Sequestrant Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, irritation of skin and mucous membranes, stomach upsets, irregular heartbeat Cottage cheese, jellies, canned tomatoes, low sodium salt substitute Cosmetics, eye lotion, fire extinguishers
E510 Ammonium Chloride N/A Halaal synthetic
E511 Magnesium Chloride magnogene Firming agent, Buffer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess may have a laxative effect Infant formula, salt substitute, non-alcoholic beverages
E512 Stannous Chloride Tin dichloride; tin protochloride; Stannochlor Antioxidant, Colour retention agent Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, Low systematic toxicity, but may be irritating to skin and mucous membranes, harmful to aquatic organisms Canned asparagus, canned fruit juice, canned soft drinks Manufacture of dye
E513 Sulphuric Acid Sulfuric acid Acidity Regulator Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use Used to modify starch Brewing industry, cosmetic products
E514 Sodium Sulphate Glauber's salt Acidity Regulator, Preservative Halaal mineral Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, skin irritation, gastrointestinal irritation, people with poor kidney or liver function should avoid Chewing gum base, biscuits, tuna fish Manufacture of dye, soap, detergents, glass and paper
E515 Potassium Sulphate N/A Acidity Regulator Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, large doses cause severe gastrointestinal bleeding Low sodium salt substitute, brewing industry Cosmetics, medicines
E516 Calcium Sulphate Gypsum; Plaster of Paris Firming agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use, large amounts may cause intestinal obstruction and constipation Flour products, baking powder, cereals flours, canned tomatoes, Gorgozola cheese Toothpastes and powder, brewing industry, insecticides
E517 Ammonium Sulphate Sulphuric acid diammonium salt; mascagnite Flour treatment, Stabiliser Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use, proved fatal to rats in large doses Bakery products, dough making Permanent wave lotion, tanning industry, fertilisers
E518 Magnesium Sulphate Epson salts; Epsomite Halaal mineral
E519 Copper (II) Sulphate Copper sulphate; copper sulfate; vitriol Halaal mineral, hydrocyanite or chalcanthite
E520 Aluminium Sulphate Alum; cake alum; patent alum Modifier Halaal mineral alunogenite Health Code: Yellow, Moderately toxic by ingestion, pimples under the arms, allergic reactions, may affect reproduction. [see E173] Sweet and dill pickles, pickle relish, modifier for starch Antiperspirant, deodorant, skin freshners, packaging materials
E521 Aluminium Sodium Sulphate Sodium Alum; Soda Alum Buffer Firming Agent Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use? skin rash from contact, mild sensitisation. [see E173] Cereal, flour, bleached flour, cheese
E522 Aluminium Potassium Sulphate Potassium Alum; alum flour; burnt alum; alum meal Halaal synthetic chemical
E523 Aluminium Ammonium Sulphate Burnt Ammonium Alum; exsiccated ammonium alum Stabiliser Buffer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, ingestion of large doses can cause burning in mouth and throat, vomiting and diarrhoea [see E173] Bakjing powder, milling and cereal industries Purification of drinking water, fire-proofing, vegetable glue
E524 Sodium Hydroxide Caustic Soda; Lye Emulsifier Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use, contact can cause demartitis, concentrate is hazardous Modifier for starch, glazing of pretzels Shampoo, shaving cream, liquid drain cleaner
E525 Potassium Hydroxide N/A Alkali, Emulsifier Halaal synthetic Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, skin irritation and nail damage in cuticle removers, tumours in mice when applied to the skin Extracting colour from Anatto seed, cacao products Hand lotion, shaving cream, cuticle removers
E526 Calcium Hydroxide N/A Acidity Regulator, Firming agent Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use, toxic and hazardous in concentrated form Canned peas, fruit products, infant formula, beer, ale Depilatories, animal feeds, plaster, pesticides
E527 Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonia Water; Ammonia % Acidity regulator, Nutraliser Halaal synthetic Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, irritating to eyes and mucous membranes, hair breakage, toxic by ingestion Cocoa products, chocolate Metallic hair dye, barrier cream, stain remover, animal feed detergent
E528 Magnesium Hydroxide Periclase Acidity Regulator Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels Manufacture of some caramels, canned peas, cheese manufacture Dentifrices,skin cream
E529 Calcium Oxide Quicklime; lime; burnt lime; calx Emulsifier, Texturiser Halaal synthetic from limestone Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, can cause severe damage to skin and mucous membranes on contact, thermal and chemical burns Confectionery, custard mix, flour products, soup, malted milk powder, canned peas Cosmetics, home and garden pesticides, insecticides, plaster
E530 Magnesium Oxide Periclase; Native magnesium Anticaking Agent, Firming agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use Frozen dairy products, canned peas
E535 Sodium Ferrocyanide Sodium hexacyanoferrate II Anticaking Agent Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use Salts and condiments Processing wine
E536 Potassium Ferrocyanide Potassium hexacyanoferrate II Anticaking Agent, Colouring Halaal synthetic Health Code: Yellow, Kidney toxicity, skin irritation, may be harmful by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption Salts and condiments
E538 Calcium Ferrocyanide N/A Anticaking Agent Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Table salt
E540 diCalcium Diphosphate diCalcium pyrophosphate Halaal mineral & synthetic
E541 Sodium Aluminium Phosphate Sodium Aluminium Phosphate acidic & basic. SAP Emulsifier, Acidity regulator Halaal synthetic from phosphoric acid. Propriety: Budal 2308 Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels, people with kidney or heart disease may wish to avoid or limit intake [see Aluminium E173] Self-raising flour, various cheeses
E543 Calcium Sodium Polyphosphate N/A Halaal synthetic from phosphoric acid
E544 Calcium Polyphosphates N/A Halaal synthetic from polyphosphoric acid
E545 Ammonium Polyphosphates N/A Halaal from phosphoric acid
E550 Sodium Silicate Water glass; soluble glass Halaal synthetic chemical
E551 Silicon Dioxide Silica; Silicic anhydride; Flogard; Sipernat 22S; Pirosil; aerosil 200 Anticaking Agent Halaal Sand; Rocks Health Code: Green, safe in food use, has beneficial health effects Dried egg products, beverage whitener, salt substitutes Beer production, animal feed, paper and paperboard
E552 Calcium Silicate Wollastonite Anticaking Agent, Glazing agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Green, safe in food use, inhalation may cause respiratory tract irritation, asthma Baking powder, rice, chewing gum, table salt, vanilla powder Face powder, lime glass, cement
E553(a) Magnesium Silicate Manesium trisilicate Anticaking Agent Halaal synthetic Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, kidney stones Vanilla powder Talcum powder, shampoo, antacid
E553(b) Talc French chalk; magnesium hydrogen metasilicate Anticaking Agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Red, Cancers (stomach anbd ovarian), cough, vomiting, respiratory problems, tumours, stomach problems Chocolate, chewing gum base, condiments, confectionery, polished rice Eye make-up, bath powder, baby powder, animal feed, vitamin supplements
E554 Aluminium Sodium Silicate Sodium Aluminosilicate Anticaking Agent Halaal mineral & synthetic Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels [see E173] Beverage whitener, baking powder, dry soup mix Barrier cream, depilatories
E555 Pottasium Aluminium Silicate Mica Anticaking Agent Halaal mineral muscovite Health Code: Yellow, see Aluminium E173 Cheese and cheese products
E556 Aluminium Calcium Silicate Calcium Aluminium Silicate Anticaking Agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use at low levels [see E173] Garlic salt, table salt, vanilla powder
E558 Betonite Bentonitum; soap clay Thickener, Anticaking agent Halaal clay deposite Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use, may clog skin pores inhibiting proper skin function [see E173] Colouring in wine, sugar brewing and purification, settling wine sediments Cosmetics, facial masks, animal and poultry feeds, detergents
E559 Kaolin Kaolin heavy or light; Aluminium silicate Anticaking Agent Halaal mineral Health Code: Yellow, safe in food use. [see E173] Beer production Baby powder, bath powder, face powder
E574 Gluconic Acid D-gluconic acid; dextronic acid; maltonic acid; glyconic acid; glycogenic acid; pentahydroxy caproic acid Anticaking Agent, Sequestrant Halaal prepared from glucose or corn Health Code: Green, safe in food use Unstandardised foods Cosmetics, metal cleaners and degreasers
E575 D-Glucono-1,5-lactone Glucono delta-lactone Acidity Regulator Halaal synthetic from glucose Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, excess can cause diarrhoea Cottage cheese, meat processing, jelly powder, canned vegetables Cleaning agents, brewing beer
E576 Sodium Gluconate Gluconic acid sodium salt Acidity Regulator, Sequestrant Halaal synthetic from glucose Health Code: Green, safe in food use, people with heart disease or high blood pressure may wish to avoid or limit Metal cleaner, paint stripper, metal plating, rust remover
E577 Potassium Gluconate Gluconic acid potassium salt Sequestrant Halaal synthetic from glucose Health Code: Green, safe in food use Soda water
E578 Calcium Gluconate Gluconic acid calcium salt Buffer Sequestrant Halaal synthetic from glucose Health Code: Yellow, Gastric irritation, stomach problems, heart problems Preserves, infant formula, anticaking of coffee powder Cosmetics, animal feed
E579 Ferrous Gluconate Fergon; Ferlucon; Ferronicum; Gluco-Ferrum; Iromon; Irox; Nionate Colour retention agent, Flavouring Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Toxic in large amounts, diarrhoea, vomiting, may affect gastrointestinal tract, liver, stomach, caused tumours in mice Infant formula, dietary food, preserved lipe olives Iron supplements
E585 Ferrous Lactate N/A Colour fixative Halaal lactic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, caused tumours in mice when injected under the skin Dietary supplement
E586 4-Hexylresorcinol ST 37; Ascaryl; Caprokol; Crystoids; Gelovermin; Sucrets; Worm-agen Halaal synthetic chemical
E620 L-Glutamic Acid aminoglutaric acid; 2-aminopentanedioic acid; 1-aminopropane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid Flavour enhancer, Antioxidant Halaal microbiological fermentation or acid hydrolysis of vegetable proteins Health Code: Yellow, Asthma, headache, nausea, sleep disturbances Adding meat flavour to foods, improving the taste of beer (together with hydrochrolic acid) Cosmetics, permanent wave lotion, treatment of epilepsy.
E621 MonoSodium Glutamate MSG; Sodium hydrogen L-glutamate; Aji-no-moto; Sodium glutamate monohydrate; Accent Flavour enhancer Halaal fermentation using molasses from cane or beet sugar or wheat protein Health Code: Red, Bronchospasm, heart palpitations, abdominal discomfort, irritability, fibromyalgia, nausea, depression, headache, migraine, asthma, blurred vision, vertigo, sight impairment, teratogenic, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, NRC May be found in packet soup, quick soup, flavoured noodles, textured protein, malt extract, yeast extract, TVP, soy sauce, gelatine, flavourings (chicken, beef, pork, smoke). Hidden sources of MSG including soap, cosmetics, shampoo, hair conditioner, most 'live virus' vaccines.
E622 monoPotassium Glutamate Potassium hydrogen L-glutamate Flavour enhancer Halaal synthetic from glutamic acid Health Code: Red, see Monodium Glutamate E621 Low sodium salt substitute
E623 Calcium Dihydrogen di-L-glutamate N/A Flavour enhancer Halaal synthetic from glutamic acid Health Code: Yellow, Asthma, aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, probably similar to MSG Low sodium salt substitute
E624 Monoammonium Glutamate Ammonium glutamate Flavour enhancer Halaal Synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, Contains MSG, allergic reactions Low sodium salt substitute
E625 Magnesium Diglutamate Magnesium glutamate Flavour enhancer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, contains MSG, excess may have a laxative effect Low sodium salt substitute
E626 Guanylic acid 5-guanylic acid Flavour enhancer Halaal yeast or sardines or micro synthesised Health Code: Green, Mildly toxic by ingestion Canned foods, sauces, soup, snacks
E627 Sodium Guanylate Guanosine 5-disodium phosphate Flavour enhancer Halaal synthetic; guanylic acid Health Code: Yellow, Aspirin sensitive people may wish to avoid, people with gout or uric acid kidney stones may wish to avoid, NRCCanned foods, sauces, snack foods, soups
E628 Dipotassium Guanylate Potassium guanylate; Potassium 5-guanylate Flavour enhancer Halaal guanylic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, people with gout or uric acid kidney stones may wish to avoid Canned vegetables
E629 Calcium Guanylate Calcium 5-guanylate Flavour enhancer Halaal guanylic acid Health Code: Green, safe in food use, may trigger gout
E636 Maltol 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-(1,4-pyran); 3-Hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one; Larixinic acid; 2-Methyl pyromeconic acid; Palatone; Veltol Halaal synthetic chemical also from trees
E637 Ethyl Maltol 3-Hydroxy-2-ethyl-4-pyrone; 2-Ethyl pyromeconic acid; 3-Ethyl-2-hydroxy-4H-pyran-4-one; 2-Ethyl-3-ol-4H-pyran-4-one Halaal synthetic from maltol
E650 Zinc Acetate N/A Flavour enhancer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, large doses can cause nausea and vomiting Chewing gum Dietary supplement, animal feed
E900 Dimethylpolysiloxane Simethicone; Dimethicone Antifoaming agent Halaal synthetic Health Code: Yellow, Acute or delayed hyper-sensitivity reactions, nausea, diarrhoea Chewing gum, soft drinks, jam, instant coffee, cordials Ointment base, topical drugs, skin protectant
E901 Beeswax Beeswax white or yellow Glazing and polishing agent Halaal bee honeycomb Health Code: Green, safe in food use, can cause mild allergic reactions and contact dermatitis Confectionery, soft drinks, chewing gum Mascara, eye make-up, baby cream, lipstick, cosmetics
E902 Candelilla Wax N/A Glazing agent, Emollient Halaal from candelilla plants Health Code: Green, safe in food use but needs further testing Coating for foods, chewing gum Lipstick, writing inks, cosmetics
E903 Carnuaba Wax N/A Glazing agent, Texturiser Halaal from leaves of Brazillian wax palm Health Code: Green, Rarely causes allergic reactions, contact dermatitis, gastric irritation Confectionery, waxed fruit, fruit juice, sauces Cosmetics, lipstick, mascara, varnishes
E905 Mineral Hydrocarbons N/A Glazing agent Halaal petroleum distillate Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cake decorations Tablet coatings, laminating paper and foils
E905a Mineral Oil Liquid paraffin; Liquid Petrolatum; paraffin oil; Nujol Halaal from petroleum
E906 Gum Benzoic Gum Benzoin; gum benzoe Halaal from Sytroc tree
E907 Refined Microcrystalline Wax N/A Halaal petroleum
E908 Rice Bran Wax N/A Halaal rice
E912 Montanic acid esters Montan Wax; lignite wax Surface coating Halaal from lignite. Bleaching of Montan wax (palm fossil) Health Code: Yellow, Insufficient information to assess Protective layer on fruit skins, coating on foods
E913 Lanolin Sheep wool grease; wool fat; oesipos; agnin; alapurin Halaal sheep secretion found on wool
E914 Oxidised Polyethylene Wax N/A Humectant Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, Carcinogenic?, kidney and liver damage Used as a protective coating on fruits and vegetables
E922 Potassium Persulphate potassium persulfate; Anthion Halaal synthetic chemical
E923 Ammonium Persulphate ammonium persulfate; ammonium peroxydisufate Halaal synthetic chemical
E924 Potassium Bromate N/A Halaal synthetic chemical
E925 Chlorine N/A Halaal synthetic chemical
E926 Chlorine Dioxide Chlorine peroxide Halaal synthetic chemical
E927 Azodicabonamide Azoforamide; Azo dicarboxillic acid; Azo bisformamide Halaal synthetic chemical
E927b Carbamide Urea; carbonyldiamide Browning agent, Deodoriser Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use, skin irritation, allergic reactions, headache Baked goods, chewing gum, pretzels Roll on deodorant, shampoo, mouthwash, hair colouring
E928 Benzoyl Peroxide dibenzyl peroxide; benzoyl superoxide Halaal synthetic chemical
E930 Calcium Peroxide calcium dioxide Halaal synthetic chemical
E938 Argon N/A Packaging gas Halaal Air Health Code: Green, safe in food use Packaging of foods Welding
E939 Helium N/A Packaging gas, Propellant Halaal Natural gas Health Code: Green, safe in food use Arc welding, inflating balloons
E940 Dichlorodifluoromethane difluorodichloromethane; Freon 12; Frigen 12; Halon Halaal synthetic chemical
E941 Nitrogen N/A Propellant, Packing gas Halaal Air Health Code: Green, safe in food use Freezing and vacuum packing of foods Preservative in cosmetics
E942 Nitrous Oxide Dinitrogen monoxide; laughing gas; hyponitrous acid anhydride; factitious air Propellant Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Flour (bleeched), food aerosols Whipped cosmetic cream
E943a Butane n-butane Colouring Halaal petroleum Health Code: Yellow, Animal carcinogen, CNS depression, on NIH hazards list, neurotoxicity Refrigerant Aerosol cosmetics
E943b Isobutane 2-methyl propane; methyl propane Propellant Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Yellow, See Butane Spray-on pan coatings Cosmetic spray, refrigeration
E944 Propane Dimethylmethane; propyl hydride Propellant, Aerator Halaal petroleum Health Code: Yellow, May be narcotic in high concentrations, neurotoxicity, being reassessed for safety Foamed and sprayed foods Cosmetics in aerosols
E948 Oxygen N/A Packaging gas Halaal Air Health Code: Green, safe in food use Manufacture of cider
E949 Hydrogen Protium Packaging gas Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Green, safe in food use Hydrogenation of oils like soybean, corn and cottonseed Production of sorbitol used in cosmetics
E950 Acesulfame K Acetosulfam K. Artifificial Sweetener, Flavour Enhancer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Caused lung tumours, breast tumours, leukaemia, respiratory disease and cancer in animals Artificial sweetener, low calorie foods, low joule chewing gum Oral care products
E951 Aspartame APM; SC 18862; Canderel; Equal; NutraSweet; Sanecta; Tri-Sweet Artifificial Sweetener, Flavour Enhancer Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red++, headache, depression, anxiety, asthma, fatigue, hyperactivity, MS like symptoms, blindness, aggression, migraine, insomnia, dizziness, irritability, epilepsy, memory loss, seizures - more than 92 in all, NRC, not recommended for women durin pregnancy Artificial sweeteners, low calorie foods, diet drinks, chewing gum, softdrinks, instant coffee and may be added to anything which is sugar free or without added sugar. Medications, including those for children
E952(i) Cylamic Acid Cyclohexylsulfamic acid; cyclohexanesulfamic acid; hexamic acid. Halaal synthetic chemical
E952(iii) Calcium Cyclamate Cyclamic acid calcium salt; Cyclan; Sucaryl calcium Halaal synthetic chemical
E953 Isomalt Palatinin; hydrogenated isomaltulose Artificial Sweetener, Thickener Halaal synthetically from sucrose Health Code: Green, safe in food use, gastric irritation Ice cream, jams, baked goods Cosmetics
E954 Saccharin and its Salts Benzosulphamide; o-sulphobenzimide; o-suphobenzoic acid imide; Glucide; Glucid; Saccharin sodium; Saccharin potassium; Saccharin calcium. Artificial Sweetener Halaal synthetic chemical Health Code: Red, Hives, pruritis, NRC, eczema, nausea, diarrhoea, diuresis, headache, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic Diet soft drinks, sugar substitute Chewable aspirin, pharmaceutical preparations
E955 Sucralose N/A Artificial Sweetener Halaal chlorinated sucrose derivative Health Code: Yellow, Thymus shrinkage, kidney and liver enlargement in animal studies Confectionery, fruit spreads, desserts, baked goods
E957 Thaumatin Talin Flavour enhancer, Sweetener Halaal fruit extract of Benth tree Health Code: Green, safe in food use Chewing gum, Japanese seasonings?
E959 Neohesperidine DihydroChalcone Neohesperidine DC Sweetener, Flavour enhancer Halaal Synthetically from naringen (from grapefruit). Health Code: Green, safe in food use Cheese, chewing gum, snack foods, instant coffee Specialty beers
E962 Salt of Aspartame-Acesulfame N/A Artificial Sweetener Halaal from aspartame & acesulfame Health Code: Red, See Aspartame [E951] and Acesulfame K [E950] Instant pudding mix, dairy shake mixes, chewing gum, chocolate
E965(i) Maltitol Hydrogenated maltose; D-maltitol Halaal from maltose & glucose
E965(ii) Maltitol Syrup HGS; hydrogenated glucose syrup; Lycasin Halaal from glucose & maltose
E966 Lactitol Lactositol; lactit; lactobiosit Artificial Sweetener, Texturiser Halaal lactose derivative Health Code: Green, safe in food use Baked goods, chewing gum
E967 Xylitol D-xylitol; Xyliton; xylite Humectant, Stabiliser Halaal sythetic from xylose or xylan from plants Health Code: Green, safe in food use at low levels, reported to have beneficial effects on health, large doses cause diarhhoea and flatulence, has caused tumours in rats Ice cream, chocolate, jams, confectionery, chewing gum, toffee, mints Toothpaste
E968 Erythritol Erythrol; erythrite; meso-erythritol; erytroglucin; phycite Halaal from algae, lichens, & grasses
E999 Quillaia Extract Quillaja Foaming agent, Flavouring Halaal bark extract of Quillaja tree Health Code: Green, safe in food use, gastrointestinal irritation, large doses can cause liver damage, respiratory failure, convulsions and coma Soft drinks, ice cream, sweets
E904 Shellac N/A Glazing agent Halaal resin of lac insect Health Code: Green, safe in food use, allergic contact dermatitis, skin irritation Tablet sealer; Varnish or glazing; Sweets, waxed fruit Cosmetics, hair lacquer, tablets, mascara, jewellery
Code Name Alternative Name Function Status Source Health Info Uses Other Uses
* Source of data is South African National Halaal Authority

Yes, there are few additives which are "always" of animal origin, such as:

  • E120
    Cochineal: A red colour obtained from female insects
  • E441
    Gelatine: Derived from the bones and/ or hides of cattle and/ or pigs
  • E542
    Edible Bone Phosphate: An extract from animal bones